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ACC 304 WEEK 3 QUIZ 2

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ACC 304 WEEK 3 QUIZ 2

ACC 304 Week 3 Quiz 2 – STR NEW

ACC 304 Week 3 Quiz 2

All Questions Included

 

TRUE-FALSE—Conceptual

1.     A company should abandon the historical cost principle when the future utility of the inventory item falls below its original cost.

2.     The lower-of-cost-or-market method is used for inventory despite being less conservative than valuing inventory at market value.

3.     The purpose of the “floor” in lower-of-cost-or-market considerations is to avoid overstating inventory.

4.     Application of the lower-of-cost-or-market rule results in inconsistency because a company may value inventory at cost in one year and at market in the next year.

5.     GAAP requires reporting inventory at net realizable value, even if above cost, whenever there is a controlled market with a quoted price applicable to all quantities.

6.     A reason for valuing inventory at net realizable value is that sometimes it is too difficult to obtain the cost figures.

7.     In a basket purchase, the cost of the individual assets acquired is determined on the basis of their relative sales value.

8.     A basket purchase occurs when a company agrees to buy inventory weeks or months in advance.

9.     Most purchase commitments must be recorded as a liability.

10.     If the contract price on a noncancelable purchase commitment exceeds the market price, the buyer should record any expected losses on the commitment in the period in which the market decline takes place.

11.     When a buyer enters into a formal, noncancelable purchase contract, an asset and a liability are recorded at the inception of the contract.

12.     The gross profit method can be used to approximate the dollar amount of inventory on hand.

13.     In most situations, the gross profit percentage is stated as a percentage of cost.

14.     A disadvantage of the gross profit method is that it uses past percentages in determining the markup.

15.     When the conventional retail method includes both net markups and net markdowns in the cost-to-retail ratio, it approximates a lower-of-cost-or-market valuation.

16.     In the retail inventory method, the term markup means a markup on the original cost of an inventory item.

17.     In the retail inventory method, abnormal shortages are deducted from both the cost and retail amounts and reported as a loss.

18.     The inventory turnover ratio is computed by dividing the cost of goods sold by the ending inventory on hand.

19.     The average days to sell inventory represents the average number of days’ sales for which a company has inventory on hand.

*20.     The LIFO retail method assumes that markups and markdowns apply only to the goods purchased during the period.

MULTIPLE CHOICE—Conceptual

21.     Which of the following is true about lower-of-cost-or-market?

a.   It is inconsistent because losses are recognized but not gains.

b.   It usually understates assets.

c.   It can increase future income.

d.   All of these.

22.     The primary basis of accounting for inventories is cost. A departure from the cost basis of pricing the inventory is required where there is evidence that when the goods are sold in the ordinary course of business their

a.   selling price will be less than their replacement cost.

b.   replacement cost will be more than their net realizable value.

c.   cost will be less than their replacement cost.

d.   future utility will be less than their cost.

23.     When valuing raw materials inventory at lower-of-cost-or-market, what is the meaning of the term “market”?

a.   Net realizable value

b.   Net realizable value less a normal profit margin

c.   Current replacement cost

d.   Discounted present value

24.     In no case can “market” in the lower-of-cost-or-market rule be more than

a.   estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business.

b.   estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less reasonably predictable costs of completion and disposal.

c.   estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less reasonably predictable costs of completion and disposal and an allowance for an approximately normal profit margin.

d.   estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less reasonably predictable costs of completion and disposal, an allowance for an approximately normal profit margin, and an adequate reserve for possible future losses.

25.     Designated market value

a.   is always the middle value of replacement cost, net realizable value, and net realizable value less a normal profit margin.

b.   should always be equal to net realizable value.

c.   may sometimes exceed net realizable value.

d.   should always be equal to net realizable value less a normal profit margin.

26.     Lower-of-cost-or-market

a.   is most conservative if applied to the total inventory.

b.   is most conservative if applied to major categories of inventory.

c.   is most conservative if applied to individual items of inventory.

d.   must be applied to major categories for taxes.

27.     An item of inventory purchased this period for $15.00 has been incorrectly written down to its current replacement cost of $10.00. It sells during the following period for $30.00, its normal selling price, with disposal costs of $3.00 and normal profit of $12.00. Which of the following statements is not true?

a.   The cost of sales of the following year will be understated.

b.   The current year’s income is understated.

c.   The closing inventory of the current year is understated.

d.   Income of the following year will be understated.

S28.     When the cost-of-goods-sold method is used to record inventory at market

a.   there is a direct reduction in the selling price of the product that results in a loss being recorded on the income statement prior to the sale.

b.   a loss is recorded directly in the inventory account by crediting inventory and debiting loss on inventory decline.

c.   only the portion of the loss attributable to inventory sold during the period is recorded in the financial statements.

d.   the market value figure for ending inventory is substituted for cost and the loss is buried in cost of goods sold.

29.     Lower-of-cost-or-market as it applies to inventory is best described as the

a.   drop of future utility below its original cost.

b.   method of determining cost of goods sold.

c.   assumption to determine inventory flow.

d.   change in inventory value to market value.

30.     The floor to be used in applying the lower-of-cost-or-market method to inventory is determined as the

a.   net realizable value.

b.   net realizable value less normal profit margin.

c.   replacement cost.

d.   selling price less costs of completion and disposal.

31.     What is the rationale behind the ceiling when applying the lower-of-cost-or-market method to inventory?

a.   Prevents understatement of the inventory value.

b.   Allows for a normal profit to be earned.

c.   Allows for items to be valued at replacement cost.

d.   Prevents overstatement of the value of obsolete or damaged inventories.

32.     Why are inventories stated at lower-of-cost-or-market?

a.   To report a loss when there is a decrease in the future utility.

b.   To be conservative.

c.   To report a loss when there is a decrease in the future utility below the original cost.

d.   To permit future profits to be recognized.

33.     Which of the following is not an acceptable approach in applying the lower-of-cost-or-market method to inventory?

a.   Inventory location.

b.   Categories of inventory items.

c.   Individual item.

d.   Total of the inventory.

34.     Which method(s) may be used to record a loss due to a price decline in the value of inventory?

a.   Cost-of-goods-sold.

b.   Sales method.

c.   Loss method

d.   Both a and c.

35.     Why might inventory be reported at sales prices (net realizable value or market price) rather than cost?

a.   When there is a controlled market with a quoted price applicable to all quantities and when there are no significant costs of disposal.

b.   When there are no significant costs of disposal.

c.   When a non-cancellable contract exists to sell the inventory.

d.   When there is a controlled market with a quoted price applicable to all quantities.

S36.     Recording inventory at net realizable value is permitted, even if it is above cost, when there are no significant costs of disposal involved and

a.   the ending inventory is determined by a physical inventory count.

b.   a normal profit is not anticipated.

c.   there is a controlled market with a quoted price applicable to all quantities.

d.   the internal revenue service is assured that the practice is not used only to distort reported net income.

37.     When inventory declines in value below original (historical) cost, and this decline is considered other than temporary, what is the maximum amount that the inventory can be valued at?

a.   Sales price

b.   Net realizable value

c.   Historical cost

d.   Net realizable value reduced by a normal profit margin

38.     Net realizable value is

a.   acquisition cost plus costs to complete and sell.

b.   selling price.

c.   selling price plus costs to complete and sell.

d.   selling price less costs to complete and sell.

39.     If a unit of inventory has declined in value below original cost, but the market value exceeds net realizable value, the amount to be used for purposes of inventory valuation is

a.   net realizable value.

b.   original cost.

c.   market value.

d.   net realizable value less a normal profit margin.

40.     Inventory may be recorded at net realizable value if

a.   there is a controlled market with a quoted price.

b.   there are no significant costs of disposal.

c.   the inventory consists of precious metals or agricultural products.

d.   all of these.

41.     If a material amount of inventory has been ordered through a formal purchase contract at the balance sheet date for future delivery at firm prices,

a.   this fact must be disclosed.

b.   disclosure is required only if prices have declined since the date of the order.

c.   disclosure is required only if prices have since risen substantially.

d.   an appropriation of retained earnings is necessary.

42.     The credit balance that arises when a net loss on a purchase commitment is recognized should be

a.   presented as a current liability.

b.   subtracted from ending inventory.

c.   presented as an appropriation of retained earnings.

d.   presented in the income statement.

P43.     In 2012, Orear Manufacturing signed a contract with a supplier to purchase raw materials in 2013 for $700,000. Before the December 31, 2012 balance sheet date, the market price for these materials dropped to $510,000. The journal entry to record this situation at December 31, 2012 will result in a credit that should be reported

a.   as a valuation account to Inventory on the balance sheet.

b.   as a current liability.

c.   as an appropriation of retained earnings.

d.   on the income statement.

44.     At the end of the fiscal year, Apha Airlines has an outstanding non-cancellable purchase commitment for the purchase of 1 million gallons of jet fuel at a price of $4.10 per gallon for delivery during the coming summer. The company prices its inventory at the lower of cost or market. If the market price for jet fuel at the end of the year is $4.50, how would this situation be reflected in the annual financial statements?

a.   Record unrealized gains of $400,000 and disclose the existence of the purchase commitment.

b.   No impact.

c.   Record unrealized losses of $400,000 and disclose the existence of the purchase commitment.

d.   Disclose the existence of the purchase commitment.

45.     At the end of the fiscal year, Apha Airlines has an outstanding purchase commitment for the purchase of 1 million gallons of jet fuel at a price of $4.60 per gallon for delivery during the coming summer. The company prices its inventory at the lower of cost or market. If the market price for jet fuel at the end of the year is $4.25, how would this situation be reflected in the annual financial statements?

a.   Record unrealized gains of $350,000 and disclose the existence of the purchase commitment.

b.   No impact.

c.   Record unrealized losses of $350,000 and disclose the existence of the purchase commitment.

d.   Disclose the existence of the purchase commitment.

46.     How is the gross profit method used as it relates to inventory valuation?

a.   Verify the accuracy of the perpetual inventory records.

b.   Verity the accuracy of the physical inventory.

c.   To estimate cost of goods sold.

d.   To provide an inventory value of LIFO inventories.

S47.     Which of the following is not a basic assumption of the gross profit method?

a.   The beginning inventory plus the purchases equal total goods to be accounted for.

b.   Goods not sold must be on hand.

c.   If the sales, reduced to the cost basis, are deducted from the sum of the opening inventory plus purchases, the result is the amount of inventory on hand.

d.   The total amount of purchases and the total amount of sales remain relatively unchanged from the comparable previous period.

48.     The gross profit method of inventory valuation isinvalid when

a.   a portion of the inventory is destroyed.

b.   there is a substantial increase in inventory during the year.

c.   there is no beginning inventory because it is the first year of operation.

d.   none of these.

49.     Which statement is not true about the gross profit method of inventory valuation?

a.   It may be used to estimate inventories for interim statements.

b.   It may be used to estimate inventories for annual statements.

c.   It may be used by auditors.

d.   None of these.

50.     A major advantage of the retail inventory method is that it

a.   provides reliable results in cases where the distribution of items in the inventory is different from that of items sold during the period.

b.   hides costs from competitors and customers.

c.   gives a more accurate statement of inventory costs than other methods.

d.   provides a method for inventory control and facilitates determination of the periodic inventory for certain types of companies.

51.     An inventory method which is designed to approximate inventory valuation at the lower of cost or market is

a.   last-in, first-out.

b.   first-in, first-out.

c.   conventional retail method.

d.   specific identification.

52.     The retail inventory method is based on the assumption that the

a.   final inventory and the total of goods available for sale contain the same proportion of high-cost and low-cost ratio goods.

b.   ratio of gross margin to sales is approximately the same each period.

c.   ratio of cost to retail changes at a constant rate.

d.   proportions of markups and markdowns to selling price are the same.

53.     Which statement is true about the retail inventory method?

a.   It may not be used to estimate inventories for interim statements.

b.   It may not be used to estimate inventories for annual statements.

c.   It may not be used by auditors.

d.   None of these.

54.     When the conventional retail inventory method is used, markdowns are commonly ignored in the computation of the cost to retail ratio because

a.   there may be no markdowns in a given year.

b.   this tends to give a better approximation of the lower of cost or market.

c.   markups are also ignored.

d.   this tends to result in the showing of a normal profit margin in a period when no markdown goods have been sold.

55.     To produce an inventory valuation which approximates the lower of cost or market using the conventional retail inventory method, the computation of the ratio of cost to retail should

a.   include markups but not markdowns.

b.   include markups and markdowns.

c.   ignore both markups and markdowns.

d.   include markdowns but not markups.

*56.     When calculating the cost ratio for the retail inventory method,

a.   if it is the conventional method, the beginning inventory is included and markdowns are deducted.

b.   if it is the LIFO method, the beginning inventory is excluded and markdowns are deducted.

c.   if it is the LIFO method, the beginning inventory is included and markdowns are not deducted.

d.   if it is the conventional method, the beginning inventory is excluded and markdowns are not deducted.

S57.     Which of the following is not required when using the retail inventory method?

a.   All inventory items must be categorized according to the retail markup percentage which reflects the item’s selling price.

b.   A record of the total cost and retail value of goods purchased.

c.   A record of the total cost and retail value of the goods available for sale.

d.   Total sales for the period.

S58.     Which of the following is not a reason the retail inventory method is used widely?

a.   As a control measure in determining inventory shortages

b.   For insurance information

c.   To permit the computation of net income without a physical count of inventory

d.   To defer income tax liability

59.     What condition is not necessary in order to use the retail method to provide inventory results?

a.   Retailer keeps a record of the total costs of products sold for the period.

b.   Retailer keeps a record of the total costs and retail value of goods purchased.

c.   Retailer keeps a record of the total costs and retail value of goods available for sale.

d.   Retailer keeps a record of sales for the period.

60.     What method yields results that are essentially the same as those of the conventional retail method?

a.   FIFO.

b.   Lower-of-average-cost-or-market.

c.   Average cost.

d.   LIFO.

61.     What is the effect of net markups on the cost-retail ratio when using the conventional retail method?

a.   Increases the cost-retail ratio.

b.   No effect on the cost-retail ratio.

c.   Depends on the amount of the net markdowns.

d.   Decreases the cost-retail ratio.

62.     What is the effect of freight-in on the cost-retail ratio when using the conventional retail method?

a.   Increases the cost-retail ratio.

b.   No effect on the cost-retail ratio.

c.   Depends on the amount of the net markups.

d.   Decreases the cost-retail ratio.

63.     Which of the following is not a common disclosure for inventories?

a.   Inventory composition.

b.   Inventory location.

c.   Inventory financing arrangements.

d.   Inventory costing methods employed.

P64.     Which of the following statements is false regarding an assumption of inventory cost flow?

a.   The cost flow assumption need not correspond to the actual physical flow of goods.

b.   The assumption selected may be changed each accounting period.

c.   The FIFO assumption uses the earliest acquired prices to cost the items sold during a period.

d.   The LIFO assumption uses the earliest acquired prices to cost the items on hand at the end of an accounting period.

P65.     The average days to sell inventory is computed by dividing

a.   365 days by the inventory turnover ratio.

b.   the inventory turnover ratio by 365 days.

c.   net sales by the inventory turnover ratio.

d.   365 days by cost of goods sold.

66.     The inventory turnover ratio is computed by dividing the cost of goods sold by

a.   beginning inventory.

b.   ending inventory.

c.   average inventory.

d.   number of days in the year.

*67.     When using dollar-value LIFO, if the incremental layer was added last year, it should be multiplied by

a.   last year’s cost ratio and this year’s index.

b.   this year’s cost ratio and this year’s index.

c.   last year’s cost ratio and last year’s index.

d.   this year’s cost ratio and last year’s index.

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