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PSY 110 WEEK 11 QUIZ 9 CHAPTER 11 & 12

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PSY 110 WEEK 11 QUIZ 9 CHAPTER 11 & 12

Match the letter with the correct definition.
a. The idea that we seek out and maintain those relationships in which the rewards exceed the costs
b. The decrease in perceived attractiveness of a target when viewed after an attractive person
c. Part of the preferred image for a beautiful woman
d. Best regarded as complementarity of needs
e. The desire to approach another individual
f. The idea that we learn about ourselves and our social world by looking to others as a reference point
g. Showed that anxiety leads people to want to affiliate with others
h. Having an unsatisfying network of social relationships
i. Has been found to be a universal marker of attractiveness
j. The idea that the ideal characteristics of mates are based on the social status of men and women
k. Suggests that our need to belong is fundamental and inherited
l. The idea that the ideal characteristics of mates are based on reproductive strategies
m. Emphasized the importance of familiarity in determining liking
n. Excessive concern about interpersonal evaluation
o. Part of the preferred image for an attractive man
p. Tend to promote relationships with few friends that last a lifetime
q. Related to decreases in body esteem
r. Increased salary and job success
s. Tend to have people with higher needs for affiliation
t. Suggests that we look to our social contexts to label our feelings
u. Emphasized the importance of proximity in determining liking
v. The increase in perceived attractiveness of a target when viewed at the same time as an attractive person
w. Conditions that promote a preference for ample figure in a woman
x. Emphasized the self-fulfilling nature of behavior in relationships

1. Interpersonal attraction
________________________________________

2. Social comparison theory
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3. Social exchange theory
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4. Evolutionary theory
________________________________________

5. Individualist culture
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6. Collectivist cultures
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7. University housing study
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8. Taste-test study
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9. Painful shock study
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10. Telephone conversation study
________________________________________

11. Correlates of physical attractiveness
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12. Scarce food supply
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13. Symmetry
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14. Immature facial features
________________________________________

15. Mature facial features
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16. Focus on achieving attractiveness
________________________________________

17. Radiance effect
________________________________________

18. Contrast effect
________________________________________

19. Opposites attract
________________________________________

20. Sociocultural explanation
________________________________________

21. Evolutionary explanation
________________________________________

22. Social anxiety
________________________________________

23. Two-factor theory of emotions
________________________________________

24. Loneliness
________________________________________

25. Our desire to socialize and be connected to others is our need for ______.
________________________________________

26. Comparative studies with other species suggest that our need to affiliate has a(n) ______ basis.
________________________________________

27. The study that involved the anticipation of a painful shock suggests that we have a(n) _______ need to affiliate when anxious.
________________________________________

28. One potential biological cause for differences in the need for affiliation is that people may have different optimal levels of ______.
________________________________________

29. Schachter’s research indicates that misery loves ______ company.
________________________________________

30. People will avoid others if an anxiously anticipated event is _______ in nature.
________________________________________

31. ______ ______ is the desire to obtain information from others regarding the nature and dangerousness of a threat.
________________________________________

32. People who are treated as if they are attractive may start to manifest the personality traits associated with attractive people; this is an example of the ______ ______ ______.
________________________________________

33. What is beautiful in a society often conforms to the standards of the ______ social group.
________________________________________

34. According to evolutionary psychologists, ______ is attractive because it indicates a lack of genetic defects.
________________________________________

35. Mere exposure may help explain why we find the ______ face of a population most attractive across cultures.
________________________________________

36. For heterosexual couples, physical attractiveness in the ________ is given more attention and scrutiny.
________________________________________

37. Women in our society are taught to view their bodies as _______.
________________________________________

38. Men are socialized to view their bodies as ________.
________________________________________

39. When standing next to a good-looking person, an average-looking person can be perceived as more attractive because of the ______effect.
________________________________________

40. When viewed after an attractive person, an average-looking person will be perceived as less attractive because of the ______ effect
________________________________________

41. Men who are paired with attractive women are thought to be more ________.
________________________________________

42. Three ways that birds can be “of a feather” (in other words, be similar and drawn together) are similarity in ______, ______, and ______.
________________________________________

43. When a person has a strong fear of being evaluated negatively by others, they are experiencing ________ _________, which inhibit their interpersonal interactions.
________________________________________

44. ______ is defined not in terms of the number of people within an individual’s social network but rather in terms of satisfaction with one’s network of social relationships.
________________________________________

45. The idea that “opposites attract” in mate selection is supported in research indicating that relationship partners often show a ______ of needs.
________________________________________

46. Nancy got a C+ on her midterm. She was upset by the grade until she looked at several other students’ exams. Most everyone else got a C or lower. What type of behavior is Nancy engaging in?
A. social exchange
B. social comparison
C. expressing her need for affiliation
D. mere exposure

47. ____________ concerns our desire to gain knowledge about ourselves, while ____________ concerns our desire for psychological and material rewards.
A. social comparison; social exchange
B. social exchange; social comparison
C. affiliation; attraction
D. attraction; affiliation

48. An unpleasant odor is perceived in a motel. All of the guests come into the hallway and begin discussing what it might be and the best steps to take. They all gather in one guest’s room as she calls the registration desk for information and instructions about what to do. How might Leon Festinger describe the guests’ behavior?
A. They are slowly achieving reciprocity by expressing interest and concern.
B. They are affiliating in order to make social comparisons in an uncertain situation.
C. They are engaging in social exchange to gain the most rewards in an ambiguous situation.
D. They are feeling a need for intimacy because of the possible threat posed by the unknown stimulus.

49. Leon Festinger would DISAGREE with which of the following statements?
A. The need to affiliate is an expression of information dependence.
B. We affiliate in order to engage in social comparison in uncertain situations.
C. The need to affiliate is based on our need for information about the social world.
D. We affiliate in order to maximize rewards and limit the costs of social interaction.

50. Which statement MOST accurately reflects the core concept of social exchange theory?
A. Individuals affiliate with those who provide maximum reward for minimal interpersonal cost.
B. Individuals affiliate in order to exchange information about uncertain situations so as to gain control.
C. Individuals affiliate as an expression of very basic, genetically determined primate motivations.
D. Individuals affiliate as a socially acceptable expression of a basic need for intimacy.

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