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PSY 110 WEEK 4 QUIZ 4 CHAPTER 4

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PSY 110 WEEK 4 QUIZ 4 CHAPTER 4

Match the letter with the correct definition.
a. A principle of attribution theory stating that whenever there are several possible causal explanations for a particular event, people tend to be much less likely to attribute the effect to any particular cause
b. Socially defined expectations about how people in a certain situation are supposed to act
c. A strategy designed to elicit perceptions of integrity and moral worthiness
d. The process by which we understand the behavior, thoughts, emotions, and personality of others
e. The tendency to choose internal personality factors over external factors in assessing causes of a person’s behavior
f. The process by which we first make effortless dispositional attributions for someone’s behavior and then later assess whether or not situational factors could have played a role
g. Determining whether a given action was driven by internal or external factors
h. Expressions given off that are mainly unbeknownst to the actor
i. Naive assumptions about which personality traits go together
j. The tendency to assign an internal locus of causality for our positive outcomes and an external locus of causality for our negative outcomes
k. Untruths that benefit the teller
l. A strategy used to arouse fear and gain power by convincing others one is powerful and dangerous
m. The tendency to unintentionally adopt the behaviors, postures, or mannerisms of others that we interact with
n. A strategy whereby people minimize their positive traits or accomplishments
o. The tendency to rate individual human beings more favorably than groups or impersonal objects
p. The process by which we make judgments about the personal characteristics of others
q. The ability to predict how a person will act within a limited set of social contexts and in terms of a limited number of behavioral dimensions
r. A strategy in which a person creates obstacles to his or her own performance either to provide and excuse for failure or to enhance success
s. The tendency to weight negative traits more heavily than positive traits in impression formation
t. Communicating feelings and intentions without words
u. A strategy used to make oneself appear friendly
v. An inference that the action of an actor is indicative of a stable personal characteristic
w. A principle of attribution theory stating that for something to be the cause of a particular behavior, it must be present when the behavior occurs and absent when it does not occur
x. A factor that is highly noticeable and therefore thought of as having a more causal role
y. The process by which we make judgments about the causes of people’s behavior in order to make predictions about their future behavior
z. The tendency for people to attribute their own behavior to external causes but others’ behavior to internal factors
aa. The tendency to use others’ self-presentations to guide one’s own self-presentations

1. Person perception
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2. Exemplification
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3. Intimidation
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4. Ingratiation
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5. Self-handicapping
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6. Self-monitoring
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7. Nonverbal behavior
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8. Social role
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9. Impression formation
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10. Implicit personality theory
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11. Positivity bias
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12. Negativity bias
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13. Attribution
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14. Locus of causality
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15. Correspondence inference
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16. Covariation principle
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17. Discounting principle
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18. Fundamental attribution error
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19. Nonconscious mimicry
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20. Characterization-correction model
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21. Pragmatic accuracy
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22. Perpetually salient factor
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23. Actor-observer effect
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24. Self-serving bias
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25. Modesty
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26. Self-centered lies
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27. Nonverbal leakage
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28. The process related to people’s attempts to know and understand other people and events is called _______ _______.
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29. According to Erving Goffman, people’s manner of dressing, talking, the type of music they play for others, and their nonverbal behaviors are examples of how social interactions are similar to a __________.
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30. A conscious, deliberate attempt to shape other people’s impressions of oneself in order to achieve an ulterior goal is a _____ ______ _______.
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31. People who want to be respected by others often share positive information about themselves to others. They are relying on _____ _____.
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32. “Can you please say nice things about me to my boss? I haven’t been doing very well at this job and if you don’t say something good about me, my future could be ruined!” With this statement, I am invoking the strategy of ______.
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33. When trying to protect their self-esteem from a potentially damaging failure, men are more likely to use_____ _____ ______
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34. When trying to protect their self-esteem from a potentially damaging failure, women are more likely to use _____ ______ ______.
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35. A person high in _____ ________ is likely to be an expert at strategic self-presentation.
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36. _____ _____ theory proposes that because men and women operate within different domains in society, women have become more adept at reading nonverbal cues to help them with their important goals.
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37. “Warm” and “cold” are examples of _____ _____, which exert a disproportionate influence on impression formation.
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38. My favorable feelings about Julia, a cellist, are more favorable than my feelings about cellists as a group. This difference reflects the _____ _____.
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39. When considering whether or not we like a person, if we emphasize that individual’s negative qualities over his or her positive qualities, we are demonstrated the_____ _____.
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40. If you fall prey to the _______ ________, your memory for the digits 3, 2, 6, 7, 8, 1, 9, 4, and 5 will be best for the numbers 4 and 5.
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41. Five-year-old Richard leaps off the sofa, knocks over a lamp, wakes up his baby brother, and gets sent to his room by his mother. If you ask him why he got sent to his room, he will tell you it was because “mom is in a bad mood.” Richard is making a(n) _________ attribution.
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42. Belinda, Richard’s mother, thinks that Richard’s bad behavior is because he is hyperactive. Belinda is making a(n) _______ attribution.
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43. I observe a man stumble on the sidewalk in front of me. I decide that he has tripped because he is clumsy. I am making an _____ _____.
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44. All other things equal, people make _______ attributions about people’s behavior rather than ________ attributions.
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