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PSY 110 WEEK 7 QUIZ 6 CHAPTER 6

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PSY 110 WEEK 7 QUIZ 6 CHAPTER 6

Match the letter with the correct definition.
a. An individual difference measure of people’s likelihood to evaluate objects
b. An uncomfortable feeling that incites the need to decrease it
c. An estimate of the probability that something is true
d. The degree to which an attitude is held
e. We often infer our internal states (such as our attitudes) by observing our behavior
f. Having little external reasons for performing a behavior
g. The tendency to develop more positive feelings toward objects and individuals the more we experience them
h. Evaluation of an object that is activated automatically from memory and without a person’s awareness
i. Evaluation of an object that is consciously held
j. An attitude developed because an object is associated with a positive or negative outcome
k. Learning through association whereby one salient stimuli is associated with another stimuli that is out of conscious awareness
l. A positive or negative evaluation of an object
m. Learning in which behavior is strengthened by reinforcement and weakened if followed by punishment
n. Learning through indirect pairings between a positive or negative stimulus and the attitude object
o. A person’s judgment about whether people will approve of a particular behavior
p. The ease with which an attitude is activated
q. An attitude developed to protect self from unpleasant truths
r. Idea of how easy or difficult it is to perform a behavior
s. An enduring belief about important life aspects that transcends situations
t. An attitude developed to illustrate one’s personal beliefs about life
u. People develop and changes their attitudes based on the degree to which they satisfy different psychological needs

1. Value
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2. Attitude
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3. Belief
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4. Mere exposure effect
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5. Operant conditioning
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6. Classical conditioning
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7. Subliminal conditioning
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8. Self-perception theory
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9. Functional approach
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10. Need to evaluate scale
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11. Utilitarian function
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12. Ego-defensive function
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13. Value-expressive function
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14. Dissonance
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15. Attitude strength
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16. Attitude accessibility
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17. Subjective norms
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18. Perceived behavioral control
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19. Insufficient justification
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20. Implicit attitude
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21. Explicit attitude
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22. The ______ view of attitude proposes that thoughts, feelings, and actions are parts of attitudes; however, recent research indicates that not all of these must be present for an attitude to exist.
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23. Norton has planned activities to promote Earth Day eleven times. He often says, “We need to take care of the earth for future generations.” For Norton, environmentalism is a/an ______.
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24. People with a high ______ ______ _______ can report attitudes easily, even toward unfamiliar objects.
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25. Bernice doesn’t buy meat because she is opposed to killing animals. Charlotte doesn’t buy meat because she cannot afford to do so. Bernice’s negative attitude toward meat is _______, whereas Charlotte’s is ______.
________________________________________

26. The tendency to form more positive feelings toward attitude objects the more often we see or experience them is called the ______ ______ effect.
________________________________________

27. Neurological researchers of mere exposure have found that the left hemisphere plays a role in our liking of______, while the right hemisphere is responsible for our liking of______.
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28. Jenna decides not to fly NextBest Airlines after hearing her friend Jessica tell about how she was stranded in Detroit by NextBest for two days. Jenna’s attitude is formed through the process of ______ ______.
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29. The formation of attitudes through the exposure to stimuli without conscious awareness is referred to as ______ ______.
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30. The proposition that behavior causes attitudes is the premise of ______ ______ _______.
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31. Attitudes that are held without much conscious awareness and are activated automatically are called ______.
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32. I like this class because it helps me understand the world around me. For me, this class serves a ______ ______.
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33. A person who subscribed to the notion that “clothes make the man” would probably feel that clothes serve a ______ ______.
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34. People who are high in _______ _______ _______ are more likely to think about their evaluations of an object.
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35. Years ago when political pollsters asked, “How likely are you to vote for Candidate Vic?” they often got unreliable results. Now they ask, “If the election were held tomorrow, how likely would you be to vote for Candidate Vic?” Attitude researchers would say that the contemporary pollster’s question has greater level of ______.
________________________________________

36. People who are ______ self-aware are more likely to act consistently with their attitudes.
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37. The feeling of discomfort caused by performing an action that is inconsistent with one’s attitudes is called ______ ______.
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38. A factor related to personal involvement is ______ ______, which tends to result in stronger attitudes.
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39. The idea that people think rationally about their behavioral intentions before they act is a part of the ______ ______ ______ ______.
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40. Dan has a job that pays very little money and forces him to deal with an unpleasant boss. When asked why he persists, he says, “I love my job!” One reason offered by cognitive dissonance for his attitude about his job is that Dan has ______ ______ for doing his work.
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41. Katie and Betsy join a new club. Katie went through a difficult and embarrassing initiation period, but Betsy was out of town during initiation. Katie is likely to will hold more ________ attitudes about the club than will Betsy.
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42. A counterattitudinal action that is freely chosen will ______ dissonance, compared to an action that is not freely chosen.
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43. Individualist cultures tend to place ______ emphasis on attitude-behavior consistency than do collectivist cultures.
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44. Why has the study of attitudes been so central in social psychology?
A. Attitudes and attitude change are assumed to be important influences on social behavior.
B. Attitudes and values are closely related and thus are important areas for study.
C. The definition of attitude has changed over the years yet has remained controversial.
D. All of our actions, beliefs, and motivations are caused by our attitudes.

45. Which of the following statements about the concept of attitude is NOT accurate?
A. An attitude always has a referent (an object, event, idea, person, and so on).
B. An attitude involves an evaluation of an attitude object.
C. Attitudes are formed based on beliefs, feelings, and behavioral responses.
D. Attitudes are guiding principles for a person’s behavior.

46. Which of the following statements BEST describes the current perspective on the way in which attitudes are formed?
A. Attitudes appear to have a genetic basis, which helps explain the similarity between the attitudes of parents and their offspring.
B. Beliefs, feelings, and past behavior are the sources of our evaluative judgments about attitude objects.
C. The single most important source of attitudes in contemporary life is subjective norms.
D. Attitudes are formed from values, which are our more specific beliefs about important life goals.

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